NATIONAL COMMISSION TO REVIEW THE

WORKING OF THE CONSTITUTION

 

 

 

 

 

A

Consultation Paper*

on

 

 

 

PACE OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHANGE

UNDER THE CONSTITUTION

 

 

(Assurance of social and economic rights:

How fair? How fast? How equal?)

 

 

 

*  The views expressed and the suggestions contained in this paper are intended for the sole purpose of generating public debate and eliciting public response.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


May 11, 2001

VIGYAN BHAWAN ANNEXE, NEW DELHI 110 011

E.Mail: <ncrwc@nic.in>  Fax No.  011-3022082


 

 

 

 

 

 

Advisory Panel

 

on

 

Pace of Socio-Economic Change and Development

under the Constitution

 

 

Member-In-Charge

Justice Shri K. Punnayya

 

 

 

Chairperson

Justice Dr. K. Ramaswamy

 

 

 

Members

 

q       Shri P.A. Sangma

 

q       Shri P.S. Krishnan

 

q       Dr. Sukumar Azhikode

 

q       Dr.D. Swaminadhan

 

 

 

Member-Secretary

Dr. Raghbir Singh

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

 

               This Consultation Paper on ‘Pace of Socio-Economic Change under the Constitution’ was prepared by the Secretariat of the National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution under the guidance of the Hon’ble Chairperson, Justice Shri M.N. Venkatachaliah.  Necessary research support was provided by Dr. A.K. Sivakumar.

 

            The Commission places on record its profound appreciation of and gratitude to Dr. A.K. Sivakumar and all others involved for their contribution.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

 

I.

FOREWORD

 

II.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

 

III.

ASPIRATIONS OF FREE INDIA FOR ITS SOCIO-ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION

 

The Dominant Divide

Framing The Constitution: Stupendous Task

 

IV.

CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS FOR SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHANGE: FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY

 

Why Fundamental Rights ?

Constitutional Mechanism For Realisation Of Socio-Economic Goals

 

V.

RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS

 

The Right To Survival

The Right To Good Health

Freedom From Hunger

The Right To Education

Freedom From Gender-Based Discrimination

 

VI.

ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

 

Significant Economic Growth

Dismal Record of Human Development

Increasing Disparities Of Income

Social Outcome Of Economic Performance

 

VII.

LEARNING FROM EXPERIENCE:

 

Getting Priorities Right

Not By Growth Alone

Ensuring Universal Access To Basic Social Services

Rationalize Public Spending

Greater Inclusion And Participation

 

VIII.

GOOD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF SOCIAL CONFLICTS

 

Governance

Management Of Social Conflicts

 

IX.

ISSUES OF SOCIAL JUSTICE : SCHEDULED CASTES  AND SCHEDULED TRIBES AND OTHER BACKWARD CLASSES – AN UNFINISHED NATIONAL AGENDA                           

 

Constitutional Mechanism For Uplift Of Scheduled Castes,

Scheduled Tribes And Other Backward Classes

Fulfilment Of Constitutional Mandate – How Far? How Fair?

Pledge Remains Unredeemed

Measures To Fulfil The Constitutional Mandate

 

X.

THE WAY AHEAD : FULFILLING THE CONSTITUTIONAL MANDATES

 

Eliminate Hunger

Provide Universal And Free Elementary Education

Improve Quality Of Basic Health Care

Provide Good Governance

Make Effective Use Of Science And Technology

Give Voice To The People

Making Legislation Work

 

XI.

ISSUES ON WHICH THE COMMISSION INVITES SUGGESTIONS FROM THE PUBLIC FOR FORMULATION OF ITS RECOMMENDATIONS

 

Governance

Elimination Of Hunger

Education

Health

Effective Use Of Science And Technology For

Socio-Economic Development

Welfare Of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes

And Other Backward Classes

Giving Voice To The Disadvantaged And Deprived

Other Suggestions

 

                                                                                                           
XII.       APPENDICES:                                                                                                           

 

Appendix –I

Distribution of Scheduled Caste population (1991 census) in the 15  States which account for 97.2% of the Scheduled Caste population.

 

188

Appendix –II

Bar Diagram/Table showing sex-wise percentage of population of Scheduled Caste to the State population in 15 major States.

 

189

Appendix –III

Distribution of Scheduled Caste population  in Other States and Union Territories (1991 census).

191

Appendix –IV

Projected Scheduled Caste Population in 2001

 

192

Appendix –V

 

List of 100 Districts that account for 51% of SC population (1991 Census).

193

Appendix-VI

Distribution of Scheduled Tribe Population in States and Union Territories (1991 Census)

 

196

Appendix-VII

Bar Diagram/Table showing sex-wise percentage of   population of Scheduled Tribe to the State Population (1991 Census)

197

Appendix–VIII

Projection of state-wise Scheduled Tribe population for 2001.

 

199

Appendix –IX

District-wise breakdown of Scheduled Tribe population (1991 census) and list of 35 districts which have no Scheduled Tribe population.

 

200

Appendix – X

List of 40 districts that account for 50% of the Scheduled Tribe population.

 

212

Appendix –XI

Bar Diagram/Table showing percentage of SC/ST population below poverty line in Urban India in Major States (1993).

 

214

Appendix – XII

Bar Diagram/Table showing percentage of SC/ST population below poverty line in Rural India in Major States (1993).

 

216

Appendix –XIII

Bar Diagram/Table showing Interstate variation of Literacy amongst SC/ST in Rural and Urban India.

 

218

Appendix– XIV

Bar Diagram/Table showing Major State-wise number of literates per 1000 persons amongst Scheduled Caste/ Scheduled Tribe and others of age 5 years and above in Urban India.

 

220

Appendix – XV

Bar Diagram/Table showing Major State-wise number of literates per 1000 persons amongst Scheduled Caste/ Scheduled Tribe and others of age 5 years and above in Rural India.

 

223

Appendix XVI

Availability of civic amenities for SC/ST as in the year 1991 in Rural India.

 

225

Appendix – XVII

Monitoring of the Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe Households at District level.

 

226

Appendix –XVIII

Child Prostitution : List of High Risk Areas in India.

 

227